Kamal Moony Al-Amara(PhD.)
Open educational College in Basra/Dep. of Educational Guidance
Arafat AbdAli Alabbad
(MA.) Assist. Lecturer
Open educational College in Basra/Dep. of English
Recently, the demand for communicative competence together with the linguistic competence in English language has been increased worldwide. Communicative competence is concerned with the ability to use language in communication whereas linguistic competence refers to the ability to produce grammatically correct sentences. Thence, the approach to teaching English in Iraqi intermediate, secondary and preparatory schools has been shifted from the traditional approaches to Communicative Language Teaching Approach. Accordingly, English language course is set to suit such a request and to prompt students to take part in a variety of classroom activities where they produce more speech materials in communicative and meaningful real situations. Thus, the responsibility of the English language teachers turns out to be great since their goal of English language teaching becomes not only to teach grammatical rules but also socialization, discourse strategies and oral communication.
The purpose of this research is to reveal the difficulties faced by sixth-year preparatory school teachers when applying the Communicative Approach in Iraqi preparatory schools in Basra city. It also shows the difference between male and female English teachers’ viewpoints about the difficulties of applying the Communicative Approach and to identify these difficulties according to the variable of gender. The population of research consists of (1500) English teachers working in the General Directorate of Education in Basra city. The research sample includes (30) Iraqi males and females English teachers with an average of (2%) of the population. The researchers use a questionnaire as a tool of the research. Thus, a questionnaire of (22) items has been designed to be distributed to (30) males and females English teachers of sixth-year preparatory school, each with (15) teachers. This research also gives a brief account of communicative approach along with its origin, its main characteristics, its objectives, the difficulties of its application in EFL classes and its advantages in teaching English as a foreign language.
The statistical means used by the researchers are the Weighted Mean, henceforth (W.M.) Percentile Weight, henceforth (P.W.) and T-Test for two equal independent samples. To fulfill the validity and reliability of research, it has been displayed on specialists in English language, educational guidance and psychology sciences. The validity coefficient is (0.75). The results of research demonstrate that there is no statistically significance difference in the grades average of males and females English teachers on the scale of difficulties. The significance level is (0.05) and the degree of freedom is (28). The important difficulties which have the first, second, third and fourth ranks respectively including item no.(5) which reads ”students have low intrinsic motivation to learn English” has got the P.W. (86.7%). Item no.(8) which states that the student’s use of mother tongue language instead of English inside EFL classroom”, and item no. (19) which reads ”weakness of the scientific background of students in the previous stages of study” have got the P.W. (83.2%). Item no. (1) that reads ”the Iraqi Ministry of Education does not provide most teachers of English with training courses in communicative approach methodology” has got the P.W. (78.7%). The researchers discuss and statistically tabulate the results, draw conclusions and present recommendations for overcoming the difficulties of applying communicative approach in Iraqi preparatory schools.
Keywords: Communicative Approach, Foreign language teaching, EFL classes