Chutnification in Difficult Daughters


  • F.Mary Bridgith, Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of English, BDUC College for Women, Orathanadu, Thanjavur,Tamilnadu India.
  • Dr.M. Premavathy Research Supervisor, Head & Assistant Professor of English, BDUC College for Women, Orathanadu, Thanjavur,Tamilnadu, India.


Code-switching, Code-mixing, Indianisation


The new millennium is undoubtedly proving to be the dawn of a reversal of history. Globalization has made the English language geographically and culturally close. We have enhanced and moulded the language to the requirements of our setting. ‘Chutnification’ of English is the new ‘mantra’ of the day. The process of chutnification is widespread not only among the lay users but also by writers of Indian English, more specifically, by writers of Indian English fiction, as the language gets set in newer moulds. Truly, the Indian Language has ‘chutnified’ and ‘Indianised’. More-or-less, all the post-colonial writers tried this in some way or other. Manju Kapur is one among them. Manju Kapur’s novel is full of instances of Indianisation of vocabulary, loan translation, use of repetition and linguistic creativity with regard to Indian English. She voices her joys and hopes by using colourful words of informal Punjabi and creates a wonderful cultural milieu for her novel. The source of high readability can also be accounted for in terms of the Manju Kapur’s use of code-switching and code-mixing devices. Here we have attempted to discover the use of chutnification in Difficult Daughters.


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